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Chloramine / Halamid in aquaculture
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Halamid® in aquaculture (Chloramine-T trihydrate)

Aquaculture requires strict hygiene rules to prevent diseases resulting in fish welfare problems and heavy economical damages. Halamid®, also known under its generic name chloramine-T in this market, is the internationally accepted product for hygiene in the aquaculture farm. Very effective against fish and shrimp pathogenic microorganisms, it has proven already for many years to be an indispensable product in any aquaculture operation, from the nursery and growing tanks to the fish processing plant.

The safety margin between the concentration effective against microorganisms and the one toxic for fish makes Halamid® of special interest in aquaculture. Well known applications of Halamid® include use against pathogenic bacteria, such as the ones responsible for Bacterial Gill Disease (BGD) or external columnaris. Halamid® is also useful against many parasites related to the aquaculture industry, for example the Gyrodactylus and Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease) parasites.

Aquaculture needs a universal and versatile disinfectant in order to ensure the best health and hygiene status. Disinfection with Halamid® of tanks and ponds, nets, equipment, well boats and in the fish processing industry ensures that pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and parasites) are rapidly and effectively destroyed.

APPLICATIONS

Summary

Application

Concentration

Remark

Tank and pond disinfection

1% - 2%

 

Equipment disinfection

1%

 

Net disinfection

1%

 

Well boat disinfection

1%-2%

 

Footbath

2%

Renew as often as needed

Water treatment - Fresh water raceway ponds

10-20 mg for 1 hr

Can be repeated up to 4 times of consecutive or alternate days

Water treatment - Stagnant water ponds

3 ppm once a week

 

General disinfection in the aquaculture farm

Always remember that cleaning is a required preliminary step before disinfection to ensure the best results. Without proper cleaning, dirt and organic matter protect microorganisms from the disinfectant, resulting in an incomplete operation.

Start by dry cleaning to remove most of the organic matter, followed by cleaning either with water or a detergent solution. Once this is done, disinfect with Chloramine-T / Halamid®. Halamid® is always applied as a water solution: simply dissolve the Halamid® powder into clean water at the required concentration.

Tanks and equipment disinfection

Tank disinfection

During the production stops, it is of major importance to thoroughly clean and disinfect the tanks and ponds when they are empty to avoid contamination of the next production lot. Start by cleaning to remove the organic matter and then disinfect by spraying or rinsing with a 1% Halamid® solution (or with a 2% in case of contamination with resistant microorganisms).

Equipment disinfection

All equipment used in an aquaculture farm should be sprayed with a 0.5-1% Halamid® solution (or with a 2% in case of contamination with resistant microorganisms) or dipped into a similar solution for 30 min.

Net disinfection

Aquaculture nets should not only be cleaned between each production cycles but also disinfected. Compatibility of aquaculture net made of Polyamide 6 with a Halamid® solution was tested by a polyamide manufacturer and the results indicate that Halamid® does not have any negative effect on the net mechanical characteristics. A 1-2% Halamid® solution should be used for net disinfection, with a contact time of 30 min.

Vehicle disinfection

Vehicles are an important way of disease transmission from farm to farm. Make sure all vehicles are well disinfected (not only the wheels) with a 1% Halamid® solution prior entrance to the farm. Equipment used for fish transports or that has been in contact with infected fish should be dried, frozen or disinfected (e.g. in 1% Chloramine-T [Halamid]).

Well boat disinfection

Insufficient well boat disinfection is believed to be responsible for spreading of several pathogenic microorganisms, including the IPN virus in Norway. This underlines the need to apply a strict hygiene management on well boats.

Well boats must be disinfected with a 1-2% Halamid® solution between each transport. Rinsing with water may be required to remove residual Halamid®.

Footbath

A footbath should be placed at the entrance of each building and you should make sure everybody is using it. A 2% Halamid® solution must be prepared and refresh as often as needed. Additionally, you can also have shoes available for visitors at the farm entrance and place them in a 1% Halamid® solution (to be renewed weekly) at the end of the day.

Water treatment

The efficacy of Halamid® reduces the pathogenic microorganisms level in ponds water and is especially useful against bacteria responsible for the Bacterial Gill Disease.

Fresh water raceway set up

Note that this is done BEFORE and fish are added to the tanks! Halamid® should be added at a concentration of approximately 10 ppm (10 g/m3). After 1 hour, flush with fresh water. This can be repeated up to 4 times on consecutive or alternate days.

Stagnant fresh water ponds

Halamid® should be added at a concentration of 3 ppm (3 g/m3) once a week.

Water pH and hardness are two important parameters to consider in order to optimize the Halamid® concentration. As a general rule, with acidic pH, a lower concentration should be used and with increasing water hardness, a higher Halamid® concentration is recommended.

Also if using a biofilter to purify recirculated water, special attention must be taken. Please contact us or your distributor for more detailed information.

Artemia disinfection

Halamid® is recommended by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) for disinfection of Artemia nauplii at the concentration of 60 ppm with a contact time of 3 min followed by rinsing with clean water. (Health management and biosecurity maintenance in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) hatcheries in Latin America, FAO, 2003)

Note:

“Chloramine T is the active ingredient of Halamid.

We have tested a US manufactured brand (trade name Halacon) and noted the following:

For Artemia: add 30 ppm at the time that the cysts are being added for
hatching. It eliminates most of the bacteria.

For nauplii: early stage nauplii are very sensitive to the effects of this
and we do not suggest that it be used until N4 or later. They can tolerate a high level (100 ppm for 30 sec). This appears to eliminate all of the  bacteria that might be surface associated with the nauplii. Iodine
eliminates about 50%.

For PLs: add to the hatchery tanks to 6 ppm daily to prevent filamentous bacterial problems.
 

 Stephen G. Newman Ph.D.
e-mail: sgnewm@aqua-in-tech.com

http://www.aquaculture.ugent.be/Services/newsl/1999/nl086/a3.htm

Fish egg disinfection

To reduce surface contamination, fish eggs can be dipped in a 1 g/l Halamid® solution for 10 min followed by a clean water wash.

Chloramine Fish treatments

Chlorine dioxide (at 25ppm) and Chloramine T (HalamidTM) (at concentrations between 10 and 25ppm) are potential candidate additives in freshwater baths to be more effective in killing Neoparamoeba and removing offensive parasite from the gills of AGD affected salmon. A preliminary cost analysis suggests that Chloramine T is a favored treatment due to lower cost. Chloramine T at 1 hour bath was effective even in seawater and was as effective as at 3 and 6 hours bath.

Control of mortality in freshwater-reared salmonids due to bacterial gill disease associated with Flavobacterium spp.

Use at concentrations of 12 to 20 milligrams per liter water [mg/L;  equivalent to parts per million (ppm)] in a continuous flow water supply or as a static bath once per day for 60 minutes on consecutive or  alternative days for three treatments in fish culture units (ref: drugs.com; caaquaculture.org ).

Control of mortality in walleye due to external columnaris disease associated with Flavobacterium columnare

Use at concentrations of 10 to 20 milligrams per liter water [mg/L;  equivalent to parts per million (ppm)] in a continuous flow water supply or as a static bath once per day for 60 minutes on consecutive or  alternative days for three treatments in fish culture units.

 

General disinfection in the fish processing plants

Halamid® is very useful for disinfection in the fish processing plants. For more information about this application, please refer to the specific bulletin on Halamid® in the food industry.

Fish hobbyists (koi keepers / hobbyists, etc.)

Halamid® is widely used by fish hobbyists against external bacteria and some parasites. It is for example particularly useful against external flukes in koi fish. Here again water hardness as well as pH are two important parameters to consider in order to adapt the concentration to your own conditions.

Halamid® is also of special interest for general disinfection of tanks and equipment in order to minimize as much as possible risk of bacterial or viral contamination

Chloramine-T

Halamid


  • ingredient: Sodium p-toluenesulfon chloramide
  • treatment:
  • use: Bacteria, bacterial gill disease, gill fluke, protozoa, white spot
  • dosage: 30mg/l (30 grams per 1000 liters)
  • duration: 30 minutes
  • comment :  
  • formula: Sodium p-toluenesulfon chloramide
  • reference : www.koinet.net

Fish with parasites, bacteria or blockages of the gills will distend their gill covers out wider and breathe more rapidly than normal to obtain oxygen, before dying. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water, in contrast, usually cause the fish to sip repeatedly at the surface.

Careful examination of a few sick or very recently dead fish will help identify the case. If well-defined segments of the normally red gills are white or off-white and slimy, the most likely cause is Bacterial Gill Disease. This is due to an overgrowth of common water bacteria and flexibacteria, which usually occurs following cold snaps or temperature stress, and in crowded unhygienic conditions. These stressful conditions should be removed, then the fish can be treated with Halamid / Chloramine, at 10 mg of active ingredient per litre of water, for 24 hours (ref).

EFFICACY

Halamid® is effective against many microorganisms related to aquaculture applications. A few of them are indicated below, but the complete activity spectrum of Halamid® is much wider.

Bacteria

Aeromonas salmonicida (Furunculosis)
Flexibacter maritimus (Marine columnaris)
Flavobacterium branchiophilum (BGD)
Flavobacterium columnaris (Columnaris)
Vibrio anguillarum (Vibriosis)
Vibrio harveyi
Vibrio salmonicida
Yersinia ruckeri (Redmouth disease)

Viruses

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)
Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA)

Fungi

Saprolegnia
Parasites
Gyrodactylus salaris
Ichthyobodo necator (Costia)
Ichthyophthirius multifilis (White spot)
Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis (Amoebic Gill Disease)

Trematodes

Halamid® is recommended by the OIE to disinfect equipment against Gyrodactylus salaris at 1% and is also recognized by the same organization to be effective against IPN and ISA viruses.

SAFETY

Toxicity of Halamid® to numerous aquatic species (fish and shrimp) has been established, to ensure safety of Halamid® applications.

ANALYSIS

Typical:

Chloramine-T (C7H7CINNa02S. 3H20)

98% w/w (minimum)

Calculations and additional data

For Static Bath Treatment:

HALAMID® needed (grams) = Volume of water to be treated (liters) (gallons) X Treatment Concentration (ppm or mg/L) (X 0.0038 (gallon correction factor1))

e.g. 10ppm in 1000 liters = 10 grams per 1000 liters. (10 x 1000 = 10,000 mg; divide by 1000 = 10g)

For Constant Flow (flow-through) Treatment:

HALAMID® needed (grams) = Water Flow liters per minute (Gallons per minute) X Treatment Duration (minutes) X Treatment Concentration (ppm or mg/L) (X 0.0038 (gallons correction factor1)

e.g. 10 x lpm x 60 minutes x 10 ppm = 6000, divide by 1000 = 6g additional for duration to compensate for additional water (see below explanation)

1Correction (or conversion) factor is equal to:

3.785 L/gal

__________

1000 mg/g

DIRECTIONS FOR STATIC AND CONTINUOUS FLOW (FLOW THROUGH) TREATMENTS

1. STATIC TREATMENT: Shut off water flow to culture unit before adding drug. Completely dissolve HALAMID in a separate container of culture water and thoroughly mix into  the culture unit. The drug solution should be used immediately and not  stored. End treatment by flushing system with fresh water. Resume normal flow.

2. CONTINUOUS FLOW TREATMENT: Determine flow rate for culture  unit. Pre-charge culture unit by administering the amount of drug needed for a static treatment. Meter additional drug solution into culture  unit at a concentration and rate necessary to maintain the target dose  in the culture unit for the duration of the treatment period (see above for calculations).

Current pricing

http://ecotao.co.za/assets/Literature/chloramineT-halamid-Ecotao-2016.pdf

 

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