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Chloramine T
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Chloramine T (Halamid)

  • Chloramine T is used to control mortality in fishes diagnosed with Bacterial Gill Disease (BGD) (Flavobacteria branchiophilum and other external flavobacteria) and
  • External flavobacteriosis (External flavobacteria, caused by F. columnare, F. psychrophilum, and other  closely related yellow-pigmented gliding bacteria are often collectively termed external flavobacteriosis€¯).
    • 1 hour static bath or flow through Chloramine-T treatment.
    • Chloramine-T  may be administered at 10, 15, or 20 mg/L Chloramine-T, and fish may be  treated 1 - 3 times on alternate or consecutive days.
  • antiseptic and odor control agent. It can also eradicate parasites  and bacteria when cleaning tanks and equipment.
  • Chloramine-T is stable  in aqueous solutions for many months when kept in the dark.
  • Can inhibit nitrification and should not be used in systems with a biofilter unless the biofilter is taken offline
  • Use to control mortality:
    • Due to BGD in all freshwater-reared salmonids
      • 12 -20 mg/L for 60 min/d on 3 alternate or consecutive days
    • Due to external columnaris in walleye
      • 10 -20 mg/L for 60 min/d on 3 alternate or consecutive days
    • Due to external columnaris in all warm water finfish
      • 20 mg/L for 60 min/d on 3 alternate or consecutive days
  • readily biodegradable, has none of typical chlorine properties, so safe to the environment
  • effective on a whole range of  micro-organisms, including Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria,  fungi and naked virus and enveloped viruses.
    • Many disinfectants have no activity versus so-called naked viruses at all.
  • Some specific aquaculture related microorganisms to which Chloramine T has proven to be effective are:
    • Bacteria
      • Yersinia ruckerii
      • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
      • Vibrio alginolyticus
      • Vibrio anquillarum
      • Vibrio harveyi
      • Vibrio salmonicida
      • Aeromonas salmonicida
      • Escherichia coli
      • Flexibacter maritimus
      • Salmonella typhimurium
      • Bacillus subtilus spores
    • Viruses
      • Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus
    • Fungi
      • Aspergilus fumigatus
      • Trichphyton equinum
    • Parasites
      • Gyrodactilus salaris
      • Epistylis
      • lchthyobodo necator
      • lchtyophthirius multifilis

Current prices

http://ecotao.co.za/assets/Literature/chloramineT-halamid-Ecotao-2016.pdf

APPLICATIONS

In aquaculture disinfection is split in two different applications:

Surface disinfection

Surface disinfection is carried out after thorough cleaning. In many countries there is a tradition to combine cleaning and disinfection. Chloramine T can likewise be dissolved in a solution of a preferably neutral- detergent (pH between 6-8). It should be borne in mind that most of the times a one-step treatment is only partially successful. Best results are attained if "dirt" (interfering proteins and encapsulating fatty matter) is first removed so that the disinfectant is able to have an optimum contact with the micro-organisms still clinging to the surfaces thus treated.

Chloramine T can be rinsed, brushed, mopped or sprayed. Spraying devices should use a pressure below 10 bar to produce coarse droplets. This avoids the risk of inhalation and promotes a proper distribution of the active solution. Non-porous surfaces require at least 150 ml of fluid per M2. Higher temperatures of the disinfecting solution are only useful if the materials to be treated are allowed to adopt these temperatures themselves (e.g. in laundering). Allow the treated surface to dry to the air.

Water disinfection

Water disinfection is done to bring or keep the microbial quality of the water to a certain desired level, by simply adding Halamid to the water in the required amount. This is the application where Halamid shows one of its unique properties: the simple applications and the broad range activity combined with the low toxicity of Halamid to fish and shrimps. This means Halamid can be used both for water pre-conditioning (without fish or shrimps in the water) and water quality maintenance.(in the presence of fish or shrimps) This is the best way to grow strong and healthy animals in each stage, resulting in reduced mortalities and increased profits.

Hatchery

At the hatchery level Chloramine T can be used to disinfect a.o.:

Disinfection Procedure

Broodstock tanks                                   (1)

Tank water - for pre-conditioning              (2)

Fish eggs                                              (3)

Equipment                                             (4)

Feed i.e. Artemia                                   (5)

Waste water                                          (6)

 

 

 

Nursery

At the nursery level Chloramine T can be used to disinfect:

Disinfection Procedure

Nursery tanks                                        (1)

Tank water - for pre-conditioning              (2)

                   - for quality maintenance      (9)

Equipment                                             (4)

Feed i.e. Artemia                                   (5)

Fish fry                                                 (7)

Post-larvae                                            (7)

Waste water                                          (6)

Grow-Out Farm

At the grow-out level Chloramine T can be used to disinfect:

Disinfection Procedure

Tanks/basins                                         (1)

Pond bottom                                          (8)

Pond water  - for pre-conditioning (2)

                     - for quality maintenance    (9)

Equipment                                             (4)

Waste water                                          (6)

 

Processing Plant

In the processing plant Chloramine T can be used to disinfect:

Disinfection Procedure

Machinery                                             (4)

Equipment                                             (4)

Transport vehicles                                  (4)

Waste water                                          (6)

 

Disinfection Procedure reference

The disinfection procedures mentioned in the Application paragraph are listed below:

1.       Spray, flush or mop with a 20 g Chloramine T/litre solution. After 30 minutes wash with clean water.

2.       Add 15 g Chloramine T per cubic meter water. Wait at least 24 hours before further treatment.

3a.     Dip in a 1 g Chloramine T per litre solution for 15 minutes. Then wash with clean water. (procedure proven to be effective with plaice, cod and halibut eggs)

3b.     Dip in a 50 mg Chloramine T per litre solution for 15 minutes. Hatch in a solution containing 3mg Chloramine T per litre. (procedure proven to effective with grouper, milk-fish and sea-bass eggs)

4.       Spray, flush or mop with a Chloramine T solution of 3 g/1. If necessary wash with clean water after 30 minutes.

5.       Wash for 15 minutes with a Chloramine T solution of 1 g/1. Then wash with clean water.

6.       Add Chloramine T to a concentration of 15 to 50 g/m3 (depending on the organic contamination present). Discharge after 24 hours.

7.       Dip in a Chloramine T solution of 100 mg/1. After 15 minutes wash with clean water.

8.       Dosage and result strongly dependent on actual conditions. Assistance is available on request.

9a.     For race way set up. Add Chloramine T to the tank/basin at a concentration of 10 gram per cubic meter. After 1 hour flush with fresh water.

9b.     For stagnant water ponds. Add 3 gram Chloramine T per cubic meter once a week.

.

HANDLING AND DOSING

To obtain the optimal surface disinfection results, the surfaces should be almost, but not completely dry at the moment the disinfection operation starts. If the surfaces are too wet instant dilution (lower activity) will occur. If the surfaces are completely dry more Chloramine T solution than strictly required is needed. Allow the treated surface to dry to the air. Unlike cleaning, the disinfection effect cannot be checked visually. Therefore you need a methodical approach to ensure the best results.

Chloramine T is always used in aqueous solutions which are prepared by dissolving the powder in water. Chloramine T is a mild product without any immediate harmful effect on the human skin, the eyes or clothes, but it should not be inhaled or allowed to act on the skin for many hours at a stretch. A dust mask is recommended when a solution is prepared. In case of skin contact the skin section exposed must be washed with water and soap.

Chloramine T itself does not produce foam, but it can very well be used in foaming devices for marking off the surfaces that have to be disinfected. For vertical surfaces using a foam containing Chloramine T adds to the efficacy of the disinfectant solution.

REGISTRATION

In most of the above mentioned applications Chloramine T is used as a disinfectant and falls under the existing local legislation for disinfectants. However in water quality maintenance, other legislation may be valid because here direct contact of Chloramine T and the life fish or shrimp takes place. To a minor extend the same is true for the treatment of eggs; fry, post-larvae, and artemia.

In the USA Akzo Nobel sponsors a project in cooperation with the Food and Drug Administration, FDA, to obtain a New Animal Drug Approval, NADA, for the use of Chloramine T in fish farms. Field trials are now running for the second year proving the efficacy of Chloramine T for the treatment and/or prevention of bacterial diseases. Residue studies have shown that fish treated with Chloramine T after two weeks no longer contains any traces of Chloramine T or of its metabolites.

In Europe Akzo Nobel is cooperating with farmer organizations and the ECU authorities to come to legislation with respect to the use of Chloramine T in fish farming. This is part of a broader effort to regulate chemicals used in aquaculture.

 (ECO) TOXICITY

Extensive toxicity testing shows that Chloramine T can be classified as a disinfectant with low acute toxicity. Its LD~. in rats and mice is 1000 mg/kg. The 90-day-No-Effect-Level (NOEL) in rats is 15 mg/kg/day.

Chloramine T is readily biodegradable, is not adsorbed by soil and sludge and does not show any bioaccumulation.

The unique mode of action of Chloramine T (no chlorine or hypochlorous acid as intermediate) makes the question of formation of chlorinated organic compounds (AOX) irrelevant.

Toxicity to Aquatic Species

The toxicity of Chloramine T to the following species relevant to fish and shrimp farming has been established in tests:

Daphnia Magna (water-flea)                                             48-hour NOEC              
1.8 mg/l

21 -day NOEC               1.1 mg/l

Poecilia recticulata (Guppy)                                            96-hour NOEC              
1.2 mg/l

Lebistes recticulatus (Gold guppy)                                   48-hour NOEC              
20 mg/l

Pimephales promelas (Fathead minnow)                          35-day NOEC               
1.5 mg/l

96-hour LCSO                7.3 mg/l

Salmo gairdneri (rainbow trout)                                       
1 -hour NOEC               
100 mg/l

8hour NOEC                 
50 mg/l

24-hour NOEC              
10 mg/l

96-hour LC50                
2.8 mg/l

Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)                               96-hour LCSO               
3.8 mg/l

Rasbora heteromorpha (Harlequin fish)                             48-hour LCSO               
1.8 mg/l

Rutilus rutilus (Roach)                                                    48-hour LCSO               
60 mg/l

Penaeus setiferus (Gulf white shrimp) (mysis stage)         24-hour LCSO               
20 mg/l

Penaeus stylorostris Post-larvae (30-50 mm)                    72-hour NOEC              
10 mg/l

Penaeus monodon (Giant tiger shrimp)                            24-hour LC5O               
100 mg/l

Artemia (Brine shrimp) (nauplii)                                      
72-hour NOEC               10 mg/l

72-hour EC5O                25 mg/l

 

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