Biofilter Media

Biofilter media products

We supply a range of biofilter media. This product is sold by the cubic metre, 100 liter bags and 20 liter bags.

The MBBR bio-filter media is suspended through aeration throughout a wastewater treatment tank. Typically, they take up about 50% to 60% of the tank volume. Their design makes them optimal for hosting beneficial bacteria and promoting their growth, providing a surface area for the bacteria. The Kaldness type of MBBR media resemble wheel-shape, with the spokes of the wheel providing the surface area for bacterial growth. Others are thin, coin-shaped discs or squares.

The biofilter or MBBR media surface area provides a surface for microorganism growth. The biofilm that grows on the media then decomposes the waste in the tank. Aeration via diffusers send provides oxygen and turbulence in the tank to promote continuous microorganism growth. MBBR media carriers have a density similar to that of water, so they mix well with the wastewater to promote consistent waste digestion.

Using MBBR media is advantageous because the biofilter media takes up minimal space, are easy to maintain and digest waste efficiently. The microorganisms on the media adjust  rapidly to changes in the amount and type of waste in the water. Although MBBR systems require some monitoring, they are largely self-sufficient. They are not a solids removal system, so we should remove as much solids as possible before the biofiltration process.

See commercial use of this media – video

The inventor of this media called is Kaldness biofilter media ans there were mainly two types, K1 and K3 media for biofilters or “moving bed biofilm reactors” (MBBR filter).

K3-type biofilter media
K3-type biofilter media
K1 Type biofilter media
K1 Type biofilter media


Current SA manufactured biofilter media

As this is manufactured in South Africa, we sell it in 20 liter, 100 liter and 1000 liter bags.
Biofilter media BFCL6R
Biofilter media BFCL6R


Biofilter media-BFCL6R
Biofilter media BFCL6R


Current imported product range

biofilter media
 As an imported product, this is for commercial applications and the minimum biofilter media order quantity is 2 cubic meters.
This biofilter media, Φ5*10 has the highest surface area at 3500 m2/m3, allowing a much smaller biofilter foot print.
3500 m2/m3 biofilter media
3500 m2/m3 biofilter media
25mm x 12mm biofilter media
25mm x 12mm biofilter media



25mm x 4mm biofilter media
25mm x 4mm biofilter media


Media volume needed

With good turbulence and aeration, at a feed rate of  0.25kgs of 40% protein food per day requires 50 litres of media.

For Koi: maximum of 0.25kgs of food per day per 50 litres used, to ensure the best possible water parameters are achieved. If a higher feed rate is required, extra media can easily be added. Koi are typically fed at between 1% – 2% of body weight per day. For every 5 grams of food fed, 1 1itre of K1 media is required.

For large commercial systems, the quantity is less and based on daily feed rates. Please send us your feed rate and fish biomass and we can advise the amount needed. Typically, this is about 130 liters media per kg of daily feed.

One aquaponics system reported using 62.5 liters media per kilogram of daily feed. This is low, possibly as other areas in the aquaponics system also work as biofilter surfaces.

Air needed (aeration required)

Biofilter media must be aerated for ammonia conversion. Aeration is needed at 120 to 250 liters per minute of air per cubic meter of media. We supply blowers for this application. We also supply air diffusers of different sizes and micropore diffuser hose.

A koi fish pond system with 50 liters of biofilter media needs about 10-15 lpm of aeration. A 2 inch air stone delivers around 4 lpm, so 3 airstones should be enough for 50 liters media.

There are now many plastic floating wheel type products commercially available.

Some of these products are no longer in production, so the below simply illustrates the diversity of effective designs.

PictureModelSpecification (mm)Specific surface area (m2/m3)Density (kg/m3)
ECOBM-1ECOBM-1 (4 rooms) high quality- modified materialΦ10*10≥1200125

ECOBM-2 (7 rooms)

high quality- modified material

ECOBM-3ECOBM-3 (4 rooms) high quality- modified materialΦ15*15≥760105
ECOBM-4ECOBM-4 (19 rooms) high quality- modified materialΦ25*10≥620100
ECOMAX-1ECOMAX-1 (4 rooms) No pure plasticΦ1Φ*8≥900160
ECOMAX-2ECOMAX-2 (4 rooms) No pure plasticΦ10*10≥800150
ECOMAX-3ECOMAX-3 (6 rooms) not pure plasticΦ12*8≥750150
ECOMAX-4ECOMAX-4 (64 rooms) not pure plasticΦ28*5≥55090
ECOMAX-5ECOMAX-5 (25 rooms) not pure plasticΦ25*12≥550100
ECOMAX-6ECOMAX-6 (19 rooms) not pure plasticΦ25*12≥50095
BFCL01BFCL01 (4 rooms) Pure plasticΦ12*7≥750120
BFCL02BFCL02 (4 rooms) Pure plasticΦ11*7≥800140
BFCL03BFCL03 (5 rooms) Pure plasticΦ10*7≥850150
BFCL04BFCL04 (6 rooms) Pure plasticΦ14.5*10≥600120
BFCL05BFCL05 (1 room) Pure plasticΦ12*8≥700121


These products are suited to fluidized or moving bed tank systems. These are also called “Biofilm Reactor”, “moving bed reactors (MBBR or MBR)” systems, polyethylene media and are used for the treatment of water and wastewater. Similare media are MB3 media, Kaldnes and EEC media. BFCL03 can support about 16 kilograms of fish per 50 liters of media, where fish are fed 1.5% of their body weight per day. Alternatively, a maximum of 0.75 kilogram of 40% protein food per 50 litres of media per day. A safer measure is a maximum of 0.25 kilograms of food per 50 litres used, in order to ensure the best possible water parameters are achieved.

The moving bed process is ideal for COD and BOD reduction as well as nitrification and denitrification. In nitrifying applications, use a blower to continuously circulate the  elements, while simultaneously oxygenating the water and stripping the  CO2. The self-cleaning action allows for the exfoliation of the older,  less active bacterial layer and eliminates the need for backwashing.

ModelSize (mm)Density (g/cm3)



Area (m2 /m3)

Biofilm formation

duration (days)




temperature (oC)


life (years)

BFCLO1Φ12 x 1 01.3>8005-15750<65>10
BFCLO2Φ11 x 1 01.4>8005-15800<65>10
BFCLO3Φ10 x101.68>9005-15850<65>10
BFCLO4Φ14 x 101.25>6505-15600<65>10
BFCL05Φ25 x 1 2>0.95>5005-15400<65>10

Self cleaning due to turbulence

Due to the turbulent movement of the biofilter media in suspension, the filter medium is self-cleaning, requiring no maintenance. This allows the filter to reach optimum effectiveness without the disturbance of periodic maintenance, avoiding unnecessary loss of bacteria within the filter. This allows stable, low levels of ammonia and nitrite within the water.

BFCLO2 (This is similar to Kaldness K1 media)BF-CLO2
BFCLO3 (This is similar to Kaldness K1 media, but with 5 radials). This can support about 16 kilograms of fish per 50 liters of media, where fish are fed 1.5% of their body weight per day.BF-CLO3



The first few of these products are similar to the patented Kaldnes media used in fish farming and waste water treatment. The design creates an environment for effective nitrification to take place. Water flow is created by aeration that circulates the media throughout the vessel. This high surface area of these products translates into a small physical area needed for the biofiltration unit.

Due to vigorous mixing of the Kaldnes-like media through aeration, the media is self-cleaning, requiring no maintenance. This allows the filter to reach optimum effectiveness. Periodic maintenance is not necessary, preventing the unnecessary loss of bacteria and subsequent ammonia and nitrite spikes in the system.